Technology has instigated the revolution in every field all across the globe, then be it the world of automobiles, statistics, academics, or the medical industry. For instance, the involvement of technology has always proved out to be a boon by reshaping the world of medical sciences in new forms. One such example is genetic engineering or genetic modification or the genome. The inception of genetic engineering began in the late 2000s when several scientists and biologists began working on a specific group of techniques that possessed the ability to bring changes to the DNA of an organism. In the procedure of making changes to the DNA, the technologies assisted in the addition, removal, alteration of a particular section of genetic material. In this approach, one of the recent and transforming methods that got developed was none other than the CRISPR. It is faster, cheaper, accurate, and highly efficient than any other methodologies of the genome editing methods existing all around the world.
What Is CRISPR?
CRISPR or the CRISPR-Cas9 is an abbreviated form that stands for the ‘Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat’ and CRISPR-associated protein 9. In this genomic editing, there is a specific organization of short, partially palindromic, and repetitive DNA sequences that are found in the genes of bacteria and various other microorganisms. Experimentally, it was demonstrated by Rodolphe Barrangou and his team of researchers at Danisco which is a food ingredient producing company. It was 2007 when the team of researchers used the Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria, which is widely found in the curd and various other dairy products.
The CRISPR sequences of genes are non-toxic and are the vital components that play an indispensable role in ensuring the immune systems of simple living organisms. As living organisms, there are instances when the bacterial cells also get invaded by the viruses. In case of an attack by the viruses over the bacterial cells, the CRISPR sequence of genes possesses the capability to obstruct the invading virus by destroying the genome of the virus. The genome of the virus includes genetic material that is necessary for the replication of the virus. The CRISPR technology of the immune system destroys the viral gene and protects bacteria from viral infection.
Functioning Of CRISPR
The CRISPR was adapted from the genome editing system that consists of short variable DNA sequences, known as spacers. These spacers are obtained from the DNA of the viruses that might have attacked the bacteria previously. Therefore, it can be perceived that the spacers act as a ‘genetic memory’ for the viruses that might have invaded the bacteria previously. The bacteria capture the snippets under the CRISPR defense system and protects the bacteria from further attacks of the virus, containing similar DNA. However, in case a new virus makes an effort to invade the bacteria, a new space is formed and added into the chain of spacers, and the cycle repeats. It is the Cas9 enzyme or a similar enzyme namely, Cpf1 is used to cut the DNA from the targeted location of the DNA. Once the DNA is cut, the scientists use the cell’s DNA repair machinery for the addition or the deletion of the pieces of the genetic material, or for inducing any change in the DNA by replacing any existing section of the DNA with a customized sequence of DNA.
According to various online academic experts, this is how CRISPR plays a vital role in genetic engineering. However, if you want to know more about the same, you can go for the biology assignment help from the academic experts of My Assignment Services. It is one of the renowned online academic platforms that provide quality assistance to the students in the discipline of biology in no time.